DISCUSS THE IMPACT OF THE SELECTED SOCIAL POLICY IN IMPROVING THE LIVELIHOODS OF PEOPLE IN SOMALI, ETHIOPIA. Contents 1Outline Water Policy of Ethiopia2 1.1Location2 1.2Objectives and Principles3 2Ethiopian Water Resources Policy3 2.1Water Integrated Framework Management Policy5 2.2In-Land Water Transport Policy5 2.3Aquatic Resources Policy5 2.4Water for Tourism and Recreation Policy6 2.5Water Allocation and Apportionment6 3Institutional Framework Policy6 3.1Water Quality Management7 3.2Drinking Water Supply Policy7 3.3Livestock Water Supply Policy7 3.4Water Supply for Industry Policy7 4Mutual Water Range and Hygiene Strategy8 4.1Ground Water Resources8 4.2Transboundary Waters9 4.3Water Supply and Sanitation Policy10 4.4Irrigation Policy11 4.5Hydropower Policy12 5References13 THE IMPACT OF THE WATER RESOURCES SOCIAL POLICY IN IMPROVING THE LIVELIHOODS OF PEOPLE IN SOMALI, ETHIOPIA. 1Outline Water Policy of Ethiopia Water Policy Ethiopia is often referred as “the Water tower of East Africa” because of its many rivers and water systems that drain neighboring arid countries. Estimates show that the surface water potential is about 111 billion m3 which represents a significant per capita. Major problem in developing this enormous resource is limited capacity and uneven distribution of the resource itself. As result of this, the country did not use its optimal irrigation potential and other uses that can be derived from the resource. Even not a significant portion of the potential is utilized for power generation. Thus, the water policy aims at equitable, sustainable, and rational development of the water resources potential. In this policy, issues such as drought mitigation are addressed. 1.1Location Ethiopia is located between approximately 30 -150 N latitude and 330 -480 E longitude. The country covers a land area of about 1.12 million km2 occupying a significant portion of the Horn of Africa. It shares boundaries to the east and southeast with Djibouti and Somalia, to the north with Eritrea, to the south with Kenya, and to the west with the Sudan. And South Sudan Ethiopia also shows a high spatial and temporal variability and rainfall. The highest mean annual rainfall, which is more than 2700 mm, occurs in the Southwestern highlands of the country and gradually decreases in the North to less than 250 mm., Northeast to less than 100 mm and Southeast to less than 200 mm. In addition to this, arid and semi-arid 1.2Objectives and Principles To avoid environmental degradation and natural resources depletion, biodiversity conservation and to develop water resources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to maintain the productivity of the land for the future generation with a view to creating suitable conditions for crop and livestock development To intensification production and productivity of farmers pastoralists and semi- pastoralists toward safeguard food security and generate conducive environment in the direction of make career opportunities Even though watershed development doings remained undertaken in the earlier beings by investing large volume of anthropological and fiscal resources, To confirming their sustainability demands devising mechanisms anywhere by the watershed users undertake responsibility to accomplish, utilize and protect natural resources with the sense of rights To advance widespread capacity of community watershed users to manage, utilize and protect the resources they have developed and to ensure their economic and social utilization Water Resources Policy. 2Ethiopian Water Resources Policy The Policy deals with general issues of water resources management and conservation, cross-cutting issues (also affecting the environment, groundwater, transboundary waters Fundamental principles of the Policy include, amongst others the aquatic resources administration Strategy of water properties plan is to enhance and sponsor all national efforts towards the efficient, equitable and optimum utilization of the available Water Resources of Ethiopia for substantial socio-economic progress on sustainable root. Proclamation No. 1223/2020 Development, Management and Utilization of Community Watersheds Proclamation No. 1223-2020 to prevent environmental degradation and natural resources depletion, biodiversity conservation and to develop water resources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions to maintain the productivity of the land for the future generation with a view to creating suitable conditions for crop and livestock development production and productivity of farmers pastoralists and semi- pastoralists to ensure food security and create conducive environment to create job opportunities. whereby the watershed users assume responsibility to manage, utilize and protect natural resources to ensure their economic and social utilization of national interest ensuring their sustainability demands devising mechanisms with the sense of proprietorship to develop universal capacity of community watershed users to manage, In-Land Water Transport Policy Aquatic Resources Policy Water for Tourism and Recreation Policy Policy On Cross Cutting Issues Water Allocation and Apportionment Economics of Water Ground Water Resources Transboundary Waters Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Irrigation Policy Hydropower Policy utilize and protect the resources they have developed and hence, in accordance with Article 55(1) and (2)(a) of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, it is hereby proclaimed the utilization Development, Management and Utilization of Community Watersheds Proclamation No. 1223-2020m Ethiopian Legal Brief 2.1Water Integrated Framework Management Policy Water Integrated Framework Managing Policy Combined Context Strategy. The general policies ♦ Institutions, ♦ Legislation, ♦ Facilities, ♦ Human Resources, ♦ Finance, ♦ Information systems, ♦ Research and studies, And the like for better and more efficient management of water resources including capacity building at the decentralized and lowest level 2.2In-Land Water Transport Policy Promote and enhance traditional and localized water harvesting techniques in view of the advantages provided by the schemes’ dependence on local resources and indigenous skills. Promote the involvement and meaningful participation of the private sector in the management of water resources. Promote passenger as well as cargo transport on sustainable basis and to integrate inland water transport socioeconomic development planning in the country. Subject any proposed development of in land waterways that interconnect lakes and rivers to detailed assessment of the feasibility and anticipated ecological and environmental effects 2.3Aquatic Resources Policy Establish and adopt water quality standards and proper assessment procedures that enhance preservation and enrichment of aquatic resources. Incorporate aquatic resources development in large scale water resources undertakings 2.4Water for Tourism and Recreation Policy The Encourage inclusion of the development of tourism and recreation resources associated with water in water resources management undertakings. 2.5Water Allocation and Apportionment especially pertinent to water resources, subjected to appraisals and revisions considering new developments. Environment, Watershed Management, Water Resources Protection and Conservation Environment and Watershed Management Promote practices of efficient and appropriate watershed management to maximize water yields and Quality. Establish standards and classification for various uses of water in terms of quality and quantity for Different scenarios including limits and ranges for desirable and permissible levels Recognize water as an economic good, for its substantive and significant contribution to the country′s economy as well as to the annual Gross Domestic Product, through rational development of water Resources 3Institutional Framework Policy Between the Federal and Regional Governments. Avoid or minimize institutional instability to maintain sufficiently skilled manpower and as appropriate, to enhance a coherent institutional framework that allows the necessary flexibility and in water resources management by supporting the establishment of appropriate institutional framework from regional to the lowest administrative structure and promote decentralized management. Basin Authorities, for efficient, successful, and sustainable joint management of the water resources of the basins through concerted efforts of the relevant stakeholders. Put in place conducive situations for the establishment and sustainability of appropriate Federal level agencies for study, design, engineering, and construction supervision Research and Development Facilitate the development of a framework for incorporating and institutionalizing research and Development in the water sector. Promote and conduct research and studies on relevant issues in the water sector. 3.1Water Quality Management Develop water quality criteria, guidelines, and standards for all recognized uses of water and ensure them Implementation. Formulate receiving water quality standards and legal limits for pollutants for the control and protection of Indiscriminate discharges of effluents into natural water courses. Develop appropriate water pollution prevention and control strategies pertinent to the Ethiopian context. 3.2 Drinking Water Supply Policy Planning Parameters and Standards (Engineering Issues) Develop the appropriate water supply planning parameters, design criteria and standards along with acceptable, desirable, and permissible ranges and limits. Finance and Tariff Finance Tariff Research and Technical Issues. Regulate, guide and manage the import of water supply technologies and materials. Enabling Environment Institutions and Stakeholders 3.3Livestock Water Supply Policy Decide that livestock water supply is an integral part of the overall water sector and combine its advance plans with comprehensive water properties managing activities. Endorse the availability of water closer to pastoralists’ as much as possible by providing livestock water supply toward all the regions, particularly to the lowland areas. Harmonize and help the principle with the willingness and ability to pay for livestock water supply. 3.4Water Supply for Industry Policy Ensure that industrial water demand forecast is based on the future industrial development plans. Confirm that when industries develop their own water supply systems, they will be accountable for the water supply services costs only. Develop a collaborative and cooperative framework for the development of sanitation systems through definition of the responsibilities of the different governmental and other major stakeholders in sanitation at all levels Sanitation Policy Ethiopian Water Resources Management Policy Define and implement acceptable minimum sanitation facilities differentiated in urban and rural scenarios. Develop a collaborative and cooperative framework for the development of sanitation systems through definition of the responsibilities of the different governmental and other major stakeholders in sanitation at all levels. Develop and promote guidelines, rules and regulations, for the study, design, operation and maintenance for efficient, appropriate and sustainable sanitation services as well as foster appropriate water saving sanitation services and utilization norms. 4Mutual Water Range and Hygiene Strategy Recognize that water supply and sanitation services are inseparable and integrate the same at all levels through sustainable and coherent framework. Promote the principle for urban water supply and sanitation services. Promote as far as possible, that the development as well as the operation and maintenance of water supply and sanitation systems are carried out at decentralized and appropriate body. Create conducive situations for the participation of all stakeholders in integrated water supply and sanitation activities and legalize the same. Develop national standards, guidelines, and procedures on the different aspects of water supply and sanitation. Work in partnership with all concerned for water supply, drainage and wastewater master plans in major urban areas and prepare water supply and sanitation strategies in rural and other urban center’s 4.1Ground Water Resources country′s ground water resources and its utilization shall be based on abstraction of the maximum amount equal to the sustainable yield as determined by competent authorities and establish regulatory norms. general guidelines standards for sustainable and rechargeable management of ground water. Foster conjunctive use of surface and groundwater as appropriate. Promote implementation of appropriate technologies suitable for water deficient areas to mitigate water scarcity problems. Disasters, Emergencies and Public Safety 4.2Transboundary Waters Provide a venue for the provision of information, guidelines and directions for External Support Agencies and Non-Governmental Organizations and establish reliable framework for coordinating and monitoring Their activities. Accordingly, stakeholders’ issues ensure the identification of the relevant stakeholders from the outset in any water 1 Surface Water Resources of Major River Basins No River Basin Catchment Area (km2)Annual runoff (bm3) 1 Abbay 19991252.6 2 Awash 1127004.6 3 Baro-Akobo 7410 23.6 4 Genale Dawa 1711505.8 5 Mereb 57000.26 6 Omo-Ghibe 782017.9 7 Rift Valley Lakes 527405.6 8 Tekezze, 891007.63 9 Wabe Shebelle 2002143.15 10 Afar-Danakil 741000.86 11 gadenle772100 0 12 Aysha 121200 0 Total 1143120338.4 Source: Ministry of Water Resources (2002Key objectives of the current regional 5-Year Plan Low implementation capacity is a widespread phenomenon and has been identified as the main challenge limiting the performance of the Region Recognize that water supply and sanitation services are inseparable and integrate the same at all levels through sustainable and coherent framework. Promote the principle for urban water supply and sanitation services. Promote as far as possible, that the development as well as the operation and maintenance of water supply and sanitation systems are carried out at decentralized and appropriate body. Create conducive situations for the participation of all stakeholders in integrated water supply and sanitation activities and legalize the same. Develop national standards, guidelines, and procedures on the different aspects of water supply and sanitation. Work in partnership with all concerned for water supply, drainage and wastewater master plans in major urban areas and prepare water supply and sanitation strategies in rural and other urban center’s 4.3Water Supply and Sanitation Policy industry and other water users′ demands, the term water supply includes water supply for human as well as animal consumption, industrial and other uses outside irrigation and hydropower. As far as water supply for human consumption is concerned, it is to be noted that over 85% of Ethiopians′ livelihood is based on farming and livestock agriculture. This has consequently resulted in subsistence level of economic life and thinly spread-out settlement so that providing reliable and safe water at minimum cost becomes very difficult. Hence over 90% of the population living in rural Ethiopia have no access Thus, this water supply and sanitation policy is developed to provide impetus for the development of water supply for human and animal consumption, for industrial and other uses in terms of coverage, quantity, reliability, and acceptable quality taking the existing and future realities of the country into consideration. Water supply for the industrial sector is a recent development in the Ethiopian context. Agriculture – based industrial development is the core element in the Federal economic development strategy. Those types of agro- industries are characterised by their immense intake requirement of water and huge wastewater discharge. Regions And bigger towns willing to create attractive environs for investors need to plan to supply sufficient industrial water and wastewater treatment services at nominal price. Water resources development plans and programmes should anticipate and include in their undertakings water supply and wastewater treatment plants for future industries. 4.4Irrigation Policy The objective of irrigation policy is to develop the huge, irrigated agriculture potential to produce food crops and raw materials needed for agro industries, on efficient, and sustainable basis and without degrading the fertility of the production fields and water resources base. The National Economic Development Strategy places heavier emphasis on the agricultural sector to enhance food-self-sufficiency and ensure food security at the household level and to develop an agriculture-based industrial development in the long run. This strategic approach can be achieved through the augmentation of agricultural productivity which calls for mitigating water shortage problems as a pre-condition. Water can be made to contribute to the national economy through the development of the country′s water resources and expanding irrigation schemes so that agricultural production is improved by solving the problem of water. The area of irrigated agriculture cultivated so far is insignificant compared to the irrigable potential. Sufficient food must be produced to meet the Requirements of the fast-growing population and ensure food security for eventualities at household level. Furthermore, small, medium, and large-scale irrigation schemes will have to be developed in order to enhance reliable agricultural development in Ethiopia to cater for externally marketable surplus that would earn the country foreign exchange and at the same time provide raw material inputs for industries. Irrigation being a development activity requiring huge capital investment, large and convenient infrastructure and trained human resources; this policy has been formulated to foster the realization of reliable and sustainable irrigation development which is harmonious with the capabilities and realities of the country and the development strategies designed. Development and enhancement of small-scale irrigated agriculture and grazing lands for food self-sufficiency at the household level. Development and enhancement of small-, medium- and large – scale irrigated agriculture for food security and food self – sufficiency at national level including export earnings and to satisfy local agro-industrial demands. Promotion of irrigation study, planning and implementation on economically viable, socially equitable, technically efficient, environmentally sound basis as well as development of sustainable, productive, and affordable irrigation farms. And water use efficiency, control of wastage, protection of irrigation structures and appropriate drainage systems. Ensuring that small-, medium- and large-scale irrigation potential projects are studied and designed to a stage ready for immediate implementation by private and/or the government at any time. Ethiopian Water Resources Management Policy the full integration of irrigation with the overall framework of the country′s socioeconomic development plans, and more particularly with the Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) Strategy. Promote the development of irrigation on two- pronged approaches of strategic planning for achieving socio-economic goals and participatory- driven approach for promoting efficiency and sustainability. Recognize that irrigation is an integral part of the water sector and consequently develop irrigation within the domain and framework of overall water resources management. 4.5Hydropower Policy Ethiopia is a country endowed with large hydropower potential. According to studies made in river basins, the hydropower resource is estimated to have a potential in the order of 161,000 Gwh/year. So far, however, only a fraction of this tremendous. The gross hydropower potential of Ethiopia is estimated at 650 TWh per year of which 25% could be exploited for power. However, the annual per capita electricity consumption (25 kWh) is among the lowest in the world. Of Ethiopia’s total energy production, 95% comes from traditional resources such as fuel, wood, dung, crop residues and human and animal power. Ethiopia currently has 731 MW of dependable power, most of it hydropower (World Bank, 2006Potential has been harnessed for any meaningful contribution to the socio-economic development of the country. Ethiopia′s physiographical nature and her endowment in water resources are natural assets which facilitate the generation of power with a relatively lower production cost. The energy to be generated will not only cater for the increasingly growing demand for energy in the country but will have surplus production to be marketed to neighboring countries. This will earn the Gross National Economy substantial foreign exchange perhaps not less than other exportable commodities. It is with these overall objectives that due emphasis has been provided to the sector and this policy has been formulated accordingly. The overall objective of the policy is to enhance efficient and sustainable development of the water resources and meet the national energy demands as well as cater for external markets to earn foreign exchange. The policy hydropower development is an integral part of the multipurpose uses of water and hydropower development is affordable, and development is in phases. Subject hydropower development schemes to strict environmental and stakeholder considerations as well as meeting economic criteria. Hydropower should be in the priority order of short term, medium term, and long term. Establish code of conduct practice for study and design of hydropower development schemes adequately addressing technical, economic, environmental and stakeholders′ issues. Create conducive environment for export of hydropower in due course in keeping with the national interest. Promote local capacity building for professionals, consultants and contractors involved in hydropower development. Promote local industries to play increasing roles in the supply of material and equipment for hydropower development. 5References 1)Chelkeba, A. Competing Water Resource Demands in Ethiopia’s Federal System: Infancy of the Law toward Integrated Management. Mizan Law Review 2018, 12 (2). https://doi.org/10.4314/mlr.v12i2.1. 2)SIWI. Scoping Study of Water Resource Management in the Textile Industry in Ethiopia; Stockholm, 2015. 3)WASH Ethiopia. FULL Proceedings of the Joint 10th WASH-WRM Multi-Stakeholder Forum https://www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/sites/ communityledtotalsanitation.org/files/MSF 10 Full Proceedings.pdf (accessed 2021 -04 -07). 4)Government of Ethiopia. Draft National Integrated Water Resources Management Program; 20185-Year Plan 2002–2007, SRSE, Jijiga.